*ADC Input Driver*
DIFFERENTIAL to
DIFFERENTIAL
CIRCUIT
ADCIN_DIFF_DIFF1.CR
Download the
SPICE file
The last of our basic ADC input drivers is the differential input to
differential output driver.
Suppose another part of your circuit already converted a singled-ended
sensor signal to ± 2Vdifferential.
However, this differential signal sakes its way past noisy AC sources and
switching power supplies. You've just a couple of tasks here: 1) Reject any
common-mode noise that was picked up along the way to the ADC and 2) Shift
the signals such that the differential
signal is centered around 2 V (a typical requirement of a single-supply ADC
input). As you've seen before, we can build from previous circuits. A couple of
Differential to Single-Ended ADC
Drivers should do the trick. The solution lies in properly connecting
the differential inputs to get a non-inverting or inverting output.
A PAIR OF AMPS
Our building block is the Differential Input to Single-Ended ADC Driver.
Assuming R2/R1 = R4/R3, we found the output to be
**Vo = (Vin+ - Vin-)
∙ R2/R1 + VREF**
Given the two differential input signals, VPOS and VNEG, take two amplifiers circuits and generate two outputs of opposite polarity.
**
Amplifier 1: Non-Inverting
**
**Vo+ = (VPOS - VNEG)
∙ R2/R1 + VREF**
**
Amplifier 2: Inverting
**
**Vo- = (VNEG - VPOS) ∙ R2/R1 + VREF**
All that's left is choosing the proper gain/attenuation (K = R2 / R1) for
each amplifier and the offset (VREF).
HOW MUCH GAIN AND OFFSET?
For this example, all we're doing is taking a
± 2Vdifferential and creating a
± 2Vdifferential signal centered around
2V. Intuitively I thought all resistors would be the same value, say 10k.
But I was surprised to find this answer was wrong! Why? *Well, a
differential to single ended amplifier (R1=R2=R3=R4) takes a
± 2Vdifferential input and generates a
**± 4V single-ended output!* Now, two
of these amplifiers of opposite polarity creates a differential output of ±
4V. Twice as much as needed. Therefore, we'll include a factor of 1/2
in the gain equation.
For this example
K = ( ±2 V /
±2 V ) · 1/2
= 0.5 V/V
Choosing R2 = 10 kΩ, calculate R1 from
the gain equation K = R2/R1
R1 = R2 · K
= 10 kΩ · 0.5
= 5 kΩ.
For an offset of 2 V, simply set VREF to
this level.
TEST DRIVE
The SPICE file has two differential amplifiers XOP1 (with R11, R12, R13, R14) and XOP2
(with R21, R22, R23, R24) wired as a non-inverting and inverting amplifier,
respectively. The gains are set by
K = R2 / R1
= R12 / R11 = R14 / R13
= R22 / R21 = R24 / R23
HANDS-ON DESIGN
Start with
these initial
values: all Rs = 10k and VREF = 0 V. Run a simulation of ADCIN_SE_DIFF1.CIR.
Plot the inputs V(1) and V(2). In a separate window, plot both the positive and negative output, V(14) and
V(24). *For equal resistors and a ± 2Vdifferential
input, you should see outputs swing ±4 V
differential!* This was the initial surprise I spoke of earlier.
Now adjust the individual amplifier gain to 0.5 by changing R12 = R14 = R22 = R24 =
5 k.
Rerun the simulation and check the differential output. Okay, now you've got the
desired ± 2Vdifferential. BUT, each output swings positive and negative! Not
good for an ADC that runs from a single +5 V supply.
Now set VREF = 2.0 V and rerun the SPICE file. Any improvement? Yes, each
output gets shifted by 2 V for a total swing between 0 and 4 V. Good news for the
ADC input!
COMMON-MODE NOISE
The ADC has a differential input which has the ability to reject common-mode
offsets and noise. However, the common-mode range usually has serious
limitations of GND and the 5V supply. Your op amp differential amplifier has
a much wider common mode range, especially if you can run it from wider
supply rails.
Suppose your signal gets corrupted by some 10 kHz noise getting on both the VPOS and VNEG lines.
Also, the signal rides on top of a 2 V offset. You can simulate these
effects by modifying the VCM statement.
VCM 5 0 SIN(1.0
1VPEAK 10KHZ)
CIRCUIT INSIGHT
Rerun the SPICE file. Does the noise and offset at V(1) and
V(2) get rejected by at the output V(14) and V(24)! Yes, the circuit is a
success! To get a better view of the rejection, suppress the input signal.
VPOS 1 5 SIN(0V
+0VPEAK 1KHZ)
VNEG 2 5 SIN(0V -0VPEAK 1KHZ)
Run a new simulation. The amount of 10 kHz that squeaks through should be
small. But remember, rejection of noise and offset depends on perfectly matched
resistor ratios: R2 / R1 = R4 / R3. Try changing a resistor by 5%, say from 10k to
10.5 kΩ. What happens to level of
the 10 kHz noise at the output?
MANY PATHS
The circuits covered in this ADC driver series are just a few examples of
how to get the job done. Just visit a few op amp manufacturer's websites and
you're bound to see a different way to drive ADC's. *There are many
methods and each have their advantages: low-noise, low drift,
low-cost, high bandwidth, etc*. No easy answers. You just have to roll up
your sleeves, analyze their performance and make the best choice you can.
MORE TOPICS
Here's around-up of the ADC driver topics to explore.
*Single-Ended Input to Single-Ended Output*
*Differential Input to Single-Ended
Output*
*
Single-Ended Input to Differential Output*
Differential Input to Differential Output
The last two functions require a couple of op amps. However, take a look at a single device - *
the Fully Differential Amplifier* - that
performs the functions.
SIMULATION NOTES
For a more detailed description of the op amp, see the Basic
Op Amp
Model.
For a quick review of subcircuits, check out Why Use Subcircuits?
Get a crash course on SPICE simulation at
SPICE Basics.
A handy reference is available at SPICE
Command Summary.
Browse other circuits available from the Circuit
Collection page.
SPICE FILE
Download the file
or copy this netlist into a text file with the *.cir
extension.
ADCIN_DIFF_DIFF1.CIR - DIFFERENTIAL TO DIFFERENTIAL ADC INPUT DRIVER
*
* DIFFERENTIAL SOURCE
VPOS 1 5 SIN(0V +2VPEAK 1KHZ)
VNEG 2 5 SIN(0V -2VPEAK 1KHZ)
*
* COMMON MODE VOLTAGE
VCM 5 0 DC 0V
*VCM 5 0 SIN(1.0V 1VPEAK 10KHZ)
*
VREF 10 0 DC 0V
*
* NON-INVERTING OUTPUT
R11 2 12 10K
R12 12 14 10K
R13 1 13 10K
R14 13 10 10K
XOP1 13 12 14 OPAMP1
*
* INVERTING OUTPUT
R21 1 22 10K
R22 22 24 10K
R23 2 23 10K
R24 23 10 10K
XOP2 23 22 24 OPAMP1
*
*
* SINGLE-POLE OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER MACRO-MODEL
* connections: non-inverting input
* | inverting input
* | | output
* | | |
.SUBCKT OPAMP1 1 2 6
* INPUT IMPEDANCE
RIN 1 2 10MEG
* DC GAIN (100K) AND POLE 1 (100HZ)
* GBWP = 10MHZ
EGAIN 3 0 1 2 100K
RP1 3 4 1K
CP1 4 0 1.5915UF
* OUTPUT BUFFER AND RESISTANCE
EBUFFER 5 0 4 0 1
ROUT 5 6 10
.ENDS
*
.TRAN 0.01MS 2MS
*
.PROBE
.END
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